what are Assets and liabilities

Assets and liabilities are basic principles that govern an increasing or decreasing net worth. Every billionaire does prioritize appreciating assets. Earning more money does not mean you are getting richer. That is why you need to make acquiring more assets a priority. Ultimately, the greater your assets, the more fulfilled your dreams of increasing your net worth. Evidently, this article gives you an insight into what assets and liabilities are and how an accounting statement from a detailed balance sheet affects the position of your business’s financial state.

What Are Assets And Liabilities?

Simply put, what you own is your asset and what you owe is your liabilities. Therefore, doing well at getting valuable assets helps manage liabilities and increase your net worth. However, you lose more money than you earn when you buy what you don’t need. For a better understanding, it would be necessary to know the meaning of assets and liabilities.


Assets are all that a business owns. Moreover, you find your assets on the left side of the balance sheet, and it will always directly or indirectly bring profit with a long-run advantage. Examples of assets are : Cash, investments, inventory, office equipment, machines, real estate, company cars, lease agreements, costs to improve leased space, land, modular office buildings, and warehouses. However, they group into two:

  • Current Assets 
  • Fixed assets

Current Assets

A short-term asset that a business uses up and changes into cash within a working period of a year. Current assets include cash, accounts receivable, and inventory. To explain, let us take a look at some types of current assets.

#1. Cash and Cash Equivalents 

These are the assets with the simplest conversion to cash. Spending is one way to use money, provided it is available in cash. Cash equivalents are usually possessions or values that have the same value as cash but have not yet been converted.

#2. Marketable Securities

Marketable securities are securities you can sell quickly on the open market. Moreover. Hence, they are short-term assets.  The two major types of market securities are equity and debt securities. In addition, securities in assets and liabilities accounting are financial tools, which include stocks, bonds, and options, sold by an issuer. They are also sales of company rights, creditor relationships, or license rights. 

#3. Accounts Receivables

The balance sheet also helps estimate how well a company gets returns on different investments.They stand in for a company’s line of credit and typically have terms that call for payments to be made within a short time frame.  Additionally, accounts receivable are listed as a current asset on the balance sheet. Any money that customers owe for purchases they made with credit is considered to be in their account receivables.

#4. Inventory

Inventory represents all the goods and the material that is in stock. Although, we have three major types.  Raw materials, semi-finished goods, and finished goods are the three main types of inventory in an organization’s financial accounts. However, they are usually used as remedies for some specific objective.These are the other types of inventories; MRO inventory, Buffer inventory, Cycle inventory, Decoupling inventory, and Transit inventory.

  • Raw Materials are unprepared items that are often put together to manufacture goods and services. For instance, some companies that bake and cook snacks or desserts use items like milk, sugar, and flour at different stages of production.
  • Semi-finished Goods, are goods that are yet to be accepted. At this stage of production, it is “in progress’’. 
  • Finished Goods  refers to those goods and services accepted for sale on the market. Moreover, these goods and services have met all standards and conditions.

#5. Prepaid Expenses

A prepaid expense is what a company owns on a balance sheet when the company makes down payments for goods or services in the future. Nevertheless, they have been termed assets before but become costs in the long run.

#6. Non-Trade Receivables

Non-Trade unpaid are also called accounts payables, or trade due. They are current assets on the balance sheet. Furthermore, they are the credit on services a customer owes a business. In addition, they are written down as journal entries. The non-trade receivables account differs in that it typically only experiences journal entries, whereas the accounts receivable account should primarily be affected by transactions.

#7. Other Current Assets

These are other unknown and significant assets owned by a company like cash & cash equivalents, inventory, and trade receivables which are not among all listed above.

In sum, assets are the valuable possessions you own in the past, present, and future. Also, assets can also be group as

  • Personal Assets

 these include home, land, financial securities, jewelry, artwork, gold,  silver, or a bank account. 

  • Business Assets 

 includes our machine, equipment, motor vehicles, buildings, cash, and account receivable. 


A liability is a debt to settle operating past, present, and future trades. Equally, it is what you are owing. Meanwhile, it requires the entity to pay with assets. They are on the right of the balance sheet. Liabilities are recorded as credits. Usually, we have current liabilities that must be paid within a year using the ‘current ratio’ measure. Regardless, long-term liabilities will take more than a year to fix.

For instance, long-term liabilities include loans, unpaid taxes, commitments, assignment costs, unpaid revenue, and credit cards.

Liabilities = Assets – Owner’s Equity   

Note: Too many liabilities can result in creditor reports on your assets. Seriously, one can get into a financial crisis.

What Are Assets And Liabilities In Accounting?

A clear understanding of the effect of Assets and liabilities on our business equity suggests proper accounting. However,

Assets and liabilities in accounting are the means of recording financial transactions as regards to what you own and owe in the event of a business. Additionally, this includes the process of summarizing, studying, and reporting your assets and liabilities on your balance sheet. Furthermore, all you do accounting for your business must be clear for an easy audition.

The accounting formula for assets and liabilities (also known as the basic accounting equation) helps you estimate your net worth.

Total Assets – Total Liabilities = Equity (Net worth)

Note this, growing equity means your business is growing great and big this sure has a good return on your asset.

What Are Assets And Liabilities On A Balance Sheet?

Before checking what assets and liabilities are on a balance sheet, it will be good to define a balance sheet.

What Is a Balance Sheet?

The balance sheet is crucial for a financial model in analysis and one of the three bases of a business financial statement (the financial strengths and flaws at one point in time). Meanwhile, accountants prepare the balance sheet report at the end of the review cycle. Also, total firm assets on debt or equity must be well described on the sheet. A balance sheet shows the net worth of any business operating firm. 

A simple balance sheet shows the business assets, liabilities, and equity (Networth). It is of two types. In addition, A Balance sheet, therefore, is a picture of the firm’s financial position at one point in time. Therefore, it varies from other statements, which document activity for a specific period.

Note all that a balance sheet entails;

  • Firstly, it includes total assets: Items of value the firm owns and controls, which it uses to earn income.
  • Secondly, it includes total liabilities: These are what the firm owes.
  • Thirdly, total Owners Equities (Networth): is what the firm owns absolutely.

Note: Companies publish their balance Sheet in their annual report and also, they usually release diverse types with different levels of detail.

Importance of the Balance Sheet

The balance sheet is an important part of a financial statement for many reasons.

#1. Liquidity 

The balance sheet shows what liquidity represents. In this regard, liquidity in assets and liability shows how current assets are changed to cash with ease. Current assets must be greater than current liabilities, which helps the company to settle its short-term responsibilities.

#2. Leverage

The balance sheet help shows the leverage of a company and the financial risk they are liable to take. However, they do this by comparing the debt-to-equity ratio on the balance sheet.

#3. Efficiency

The balance sheet also shows how well a company uses its assets in terms of management in the short term.

#4. Rates of Return

The balance sheet also helps estimate how well a company gets returns on different investments.

Assets And Liabilities Statement?

The assets and liability statement represents the list of a business’s assets and liabilities as of the time of operation, as requested by a separate public accountant. Importantly, it is filled out and checked together by the court with an agreement, in line with the Bankruptcy Law. Also, the assets and liabilities statement includes the capital net assets. Due to a breach of the agreement by one of the parties, a trial is ordered after 14 days from the date the respondent files its response. Although each party must have filled out statements with the court. An assets and liabilities statement is given when a business fails to reward owners of its shares with such shares as accrued costs, management fees, and transfer agent and membership service fees. These often lead to a trial.


In writing an annual assets and liability statement and accounting, the firm must be mindful of the legalities of publishing an assets and liabilities balance sheet for quality financial statements used for different purposes. Firstly, to enable shareholders to make quality decisions when getting into any business. Secondly, it also allows investors to estimate the company’s current financial performance (total assets and equity) and potential for future development when holding, buying, or selling stock shares.

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